The General surgeon, despite his name suggests another, is a specialist surgeon who concentrates his studies mainly on the organs located in the abdominal cavity such as the intestine, the esophagus, the stomach, the colon, the liver and the gall bladder. The professional, moreover, also deals with the resolution of diseases caused by the malfunction of the thyroid, the formation of hernias and treatments at the level of the breast, including also surgical interventions to remove tumor masses.
The general surgeon uses some procedures to carry out his / her profession as best as possible and to be able to assess the best care for his patients, such as diagnostic endoscopic examinations such as gastroscopy, an examination that allows the evaluation of internal organs to study anatomy and function, as well as possible pathologies. Furthermore, through the endoscopic examinations, it is also possible to perform small samples of tissue for any histological analysis. The surgeon also uses radiological examinations and surgical procedures that are performed both in the open and in the minimally invasive mode.
The diseases most treated by this professional, as we have already said in the presentation, are those affecting the abdominal cavity, the thyroid and the breast, and among the many we mention in particular:
Hetal hernias, a hernia that is caused by a weakening of the hiatus, the opening in the diaphragm that when spreading causes consequences of various kinds. This pathology could be hereditary but could also be caused by obesity and exercise;
Peptic ulcers are wounds that form in the inner wall of the stomach and duodenum. Duodenal ulcer is very common and appears at a young age, while gastric ulcer usually appears at a later age. The ulcer peptic is caused by gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori, a germ that can cause inflammation and ulcer both in the stomach and in the duodenum. The most common symptoms are pain, heartburn mostly nocturnal for duodenal ulcer and immediately after meals in gastric ulcer;
Diverticulitis. The diverticula are small swollen sacs that can form anywhere, even in the throat, the stomach and the intestine even if in most cases the most affected organ is the large intestine. Sometimes, these pockets can ignite causing severe pain, nausea and fever; The symptoms of this inflammation may seem similar to those of appendicitis but with the difference that the pain will be located in the lower left side of the abdomen rather than the lower right one;
Neoplasms. The term neoplasia is used to indicate new gastric formations in the esophagus, in the intestine, in the pancreas, in the colon, in the liver, in the breast, in the thyroid and in the bile ducts usually caused by pathological events and as a synonym of the tumor. A neoplasm can have a benign or malignant form and in the second case it takes the name of cancer;
Cysts. Cysts are pockets of a pathological nature that can develop at any age and in the most disparate locations, generally in a rapid manner. The causes of its formation are infectious, chronic inflammatory conditions, tumors and genetic diseases. These formations can produce symptoms as they can remain asymptomatic;
Polyposis. The term polyposis refers to the pathology affecting both the colon and the rectum (familial adenomatous polyposis or fap) and is characterized by the appearance of a multitude of benign type neoplasms defined as polyps. Neoformations of a malignant character are called carcinoma or adenocarcinoma;
Pain syndromes from post-surgical abdominal adhesions.
To begin the profession of general surgeon it is necessary, first of all, to obtain a high school diploma: it is advisable to obtain a diploma in technical or scientific subjects in order to start having the bases that can be used for the subsequent university course. Subsequently, it will be necessary to enroll in the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, a path with a limited number within the registration is subject to the entrance test.
After obtaining the first degree of 6 years, the aspiring general surgeon will have to acquire the medical qualification to practice and, therefore, be able to achieve the subsequent specialization in General Medicine. The medical qualification, as well as the registration in the provincial register of surgeons is subject to passing a state examination consisting of two written tests that provide the solution of 90 multiple choice questions and a practical training to be carried out directly in the department of the duration of three months which must be continuous in the medical department, in the surgery department and in the general medical department. Once the state examination has been passed and the certification has been obtained, the doctor will have to undertake the specialization in General Surgery, a course of studies that will last for 4 years and with which it will be possible to acquire all the necessary knowledge carry out this profession to the fullest.